Agile Waterfalls

There are many businesses today that still use Waterfall for managing software development projects.  While Agile has been around for a long time, Waterfall precedes it by a large margin and it is still the mainstay for larger organisations.  There are many reasons for this such as the fact that it fits in nicely with ITIL or Prince2 project strategies but more likely it was the strategy that was employed with legacy products and due to constraints to the project, customer requirements or technological debt can’t be easily migrated into a fully Agile approach.

Having said that, all is not lost in being able to bring aspects of Agile software development into the Waterfall structure and build the foundations of eventually moving towards a full Agile solution.

The usual Route To Live layout of projects that are controlled via Waterfall consists of multiple environments, usually labeled Dev, Test, UAT, PreProd, Production and Training.  The general flow will consist of sprint cycles on Dev and the changes then promoted to TEST where defects are identified and fixed.  Then UAT after the test cycle and so on until all the Pre-Production criteria are met and the business gives the go ahead to deploy to production.  In some cases Training may be deployed to before Production in order to bring staff up to speed on the new features about to hit production.

When viewing the whole software delivery cycle from this high vantage point it is difficult to see how Agile can make any beneficial change without breaking the whole delivery process wide open.  If your purpose is to completely replace Waterfall then yes this will inevitably happen.  The good news however is that Agile can be what you make of it.  Like ITIL, it is not necessarily a full list of dos and don’ts, but more of a framework on which you can build your business logic and processes on.  With this in mind it is possible to be more Agile within a Waterfall delivery system.

Redefining customer

From the business point of view, the customer is the end user or client who will be using your delivered product or service.  When working with Waterfall this external entity is generally the focus and the process is to ensure that the customer gets what they asked for or are expecting.

To begin implementing Agile it helps to fully understand and redefine what we’re talking about as the customer.

Taking on the aforementioned definition, we can define a customer as anyone who is expecting something from the work being undertaken.  In the case of the development team, they are producing features and implementing changes according to the functional specifications provided.  From their point of view, the customer would be the Testing team.  Testing feed into QA and QA feed into operations.  By defining these relationships we can begin to start seeing how Agile can be used to aid the process of delivery in a macro level by allowing the focus of “customer” to be narrowed down.

Agile in Development

Now that the focus of the customer is on the needs of the testing team, it is possible to start breaking down the requirements of Agile development into deliverable and achievable goals.  This can take on the form of redefining how sprint cycles are manged, Continuous Integration and build servers, automated unit testing and finally how changes are promoted to downstream environments.  Rather than trying to create a solution that will encompass the whole Waterfall structure, we’re creating macro solutions per environment where we can start bringing about tangible, measurable changes that won’t effect the overlying business logic and project plan.  To some, this may seem to be a bit of a cop out, however, when considering what it is we’re trying to achieve with Agile, it soon becomes apparent that this is a very Agile way of working within a predefined project structure.

Source control branching strategies

Probably the biggest issue that can be encountered with Waterfall and continuous integration strategies is how Branches are used as part of the environmental promotion.  I lean strongly towards using the Git-Flow branching methodology where there are 2 main permanent branches usually labeled master/production and development.  Development is where all the main line evolving features are implemented and master/production should be reflective of what is currently the state of the live production system.

I have seen situations where companies have adopted git as the source control then proceeded to create a branch per environment.  While this may seem a simple and logical step to take, it is by my opinion one of the hardest branching strategies to maintain.

Consider the flow of changes through that type of implementation.  Development finalize a release cycle and merge it into Test.  During the test cycle defects may be uncovered and fixed then those changes are merged into the UAT branch and hopefully back to Dev.  In UAT more defects are uncovered and fixed before being passed to PreProd.  But at this stage those UAT changes not only have to go back to Test but also Dev.  The further down the fall we go, the more merges are required to back port the fixes to previous branches and it can quickly escalate out of control when we have multiple releases going down the Waterfall behind each other.  In the worst case scenario a defect may be fixed in Dev which was also fixed with an earlier feature cycle in a downstream environment and then we end up with merge conflicts.  The whole process can get very messy and difficult to manage.

By far the easiest means of managing feature promotion through multiple environments is through Git-Flow’s use of Release branches.  As mentioned there are only 2 main permanent branches in existence, but there are also a number of transient branches called Feature, Release and Hotfix branches.  A good definition of the Git-Flow strategy can be found here.

It is then this release branch that is making the journey down the waterfall rather than attempting to move the change its self through multiple merges to environment branches.  These release branches can be tested, defects resolved and passed to downstream environments more efficiently than constantly merging changes across branches and the end result is that any defects found in the branch only have to be back merged to a single location, the Dev branch.  This won’t resolve all merge conflict issues such as the one mentioned before so effective communication between the Dev and Test teams is a must, but there is no reason why at the end of each environment cycle, changes can’t be merged back to Dev before moving forward.

The same can be said with relation to Hot fixing issues in Production.  The Hot fix will be cut from the Master branch and this can then be passed through the environments to be checked, tested and accepted easier than trying to revert each environmental branch back to production’s current state (which I have seen in the past) and then reapplying weeks of commits back after the fix to prepare the environments for the next cycle of feature releases.

Testing in Dev vs Test environment

The importance of automated Unit and Functional testing is apparent to everyone working within software development and is now becoming a normal aspect of all development environments.  Even User Acceptance Testing can now be automated to a certain extent allowing more of the applications features to be tested at the point of commit.

There are many Continuous Integration servers out there to pick from and so many ways of testing that the hardest part of creating an automated test platform is in picking the right tools to use for your software development requirements.

But a very serious question has to be asked here.  If it is possible to now test almost all aspects of the product with the use of CI servers and automated testing, is there a need for the Testing environment and team?

The answer to this question can all be down to how comprehensive and thorough the automated testing solution you’re implementing into Dev are going to be.

Effectively by adopting more and more of the functional and non functional testing into the Dev environment as part of the development process through automated testing, the lower the requirement will be for an extra testing team to handle those tasks in a separate environment.  In this scenario, it starts to become a very feasible option to deprecate the Test, UAT and Pre-Production environments and employ the Test team to write the functional and non functional tests against the CI server where all this testing is being carried out.  The byproduct of this approach is that an organisation can then merge Test and QA into a single function and the role of the tester is to ensure that the quality of the tests being ran and verifying the UAT function meets project requirements.


While we can’t blanket implement Agile into Waterfall development cycles, we can bring aspects of Agile to each environment in a way that the accumulative effect of the changes can be felt throughout the whole Route To Live.

It may not be possible to completely deprecate the use of multiple environments for development and testing immediately, but we can bring in elements of testing into the Development environment in a staged and controlled manner and through this process have a very real possibility of removing a large section of the Waterfall structure effectively adopting a more recognizable Agile development environment.

The end result of continuous automated testing carried out within the development environment and the migration of the Test function to a QA role, we can reduce the number of environments utilized in the delivery of the product down to 3, Dev, Production and Training.